While refrigerators and freezers (BlueLine) are meant to store perishable products, reactants,biological materials and medicine at a low or extremely low subambient temperature necessary for short and long term preservation and to control temperature in biochemical processes and analytical determinations, incubators (refrigerated and non-refrigerated thermostats) and thermostatic baths (GreenLine) are the primary instruments of any biological laboratory, be it for research, medical-clinical analysis, veterinary medicine, agri-food analysis, or quality and production control in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors. In order to satisfy the different needs of thermostatting and intended use, the range of incubators offered by KW is extremely wide. Incubators are generally able to operate from ambient temperature (or from +°C for the refrigerated ones) to +70°C maximum.

Stoves (RedLine) on the other hand, allow coverage of a temperature range between ambient temperature and 00°C.

Microbiological incubators WI, WPL, WPLR, W-LAB and WR-LAB series can be used to grow microorganisms, while WI180CCIR series CO2 incubators are used when working with cell cultures. For molecular biology applications, incubators with interchangeable thermoblocks (for microtubes and plates) and incubators for nucleic acid hybridization can also be used.

Therefore, broadly speaking, the thermostats include the incubators, or the thermostatic chambers, WPL, WPLR, W-LAB, WR-LAB, WRC, that are marked environments where a controlled temperature and/or atmosphere is maintained and thermostatic baths (W80-W82, W82/O, W84/O and special water baths) that are based on a thermoregulated bath.

In the incubators, the thermostatting can be obtained through different modes of air circulation:
natural convection, guided circulation, forced circulation. WI series incubators are with guided circulation, whereas all the others, WPL,WPLR, W-LAB, WR-LAB, and WRC, are with forced circulation.

Incubators with water jacket WPL, W90, and W102. These series of incubators have an internal heating system with water jacket, without internal forced ventilation; in this way the risk of soil dehydration and possible cross contamination no longer exist. Water jacket ensures temperature stability and uniformity.
Refrigerated incubators WR-LAB, WPLR, WRC. Are highly sophisticated appliances suitable for multiple applications, in industrial laboratories as well.

Analyses at temperatures between 0°C and ambient temperature are carried out in biotechnological research, in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, or in all fields that require an extremely precise temperature control, an excellent repeatability and the documentation of analysis processes. Controlled atmosphere incubation: CO2 incubators, WI180CCIR series. The control of operational parameters, T and CO2 % is made through a microprocessor control system.

KW GreenLine is provided with chambers for environmental simulation: WR UR 700C chambers for pharmaceutical stability tests and WRS 96 and WRS 85 photoperiod control for plant toxicity and growth tests. In addition, each line includes table or floor instruments and appliances of small, medium and large dimensions.

When choosing the instrument, it is also necessary to know the required type of temperature control, whether or not freely programmable temperature profiles are necessary, or if a heating system for predetermined temperatures and times is enough.

KW exclusively deals with microprocessor digital electronic controls, with RTD, Pt 100 probe, class A. They allow quick heating and a precise control of internal temperature, even when dealing with numerous and/or large samples, suitable for processes that require automatic temperature programming.

KW does not deal with mechanical thermostatting, which permits savings, but implies wide temperature fluctuations (thermal instability) and longer heating times.

Temperature control conformity to GMP, GLP in incubators. Most laboratories are today accredited or under certification process. Due to this reality, there is an always greater demand for valid controls based on GLP.

Calibration. In order to ensure an accurate temperature measurement, it is necessary to make use of a perfectly calibrated system. In fact, only a calibrated system (and calibratable) will be able to ensure that the electrical signal coming from the probe shows a correct and repeatable temperature value on the basis of the last calibration.

All KW incubators and thermostatic and climatic chambers are suitable for the performance of activities linked to implementation of “Good Laboratory Practice”, for accreditation and periodical calibration of the instrument.